PLAN B
Determine calorie requirements

#### Calculate basal metabolic rate

The basal metabolic rate is the amount of energy. which one needs in complete rest (for example when sleeping). to maintain all body functions for 24 hours. The body activity level is 0.95 PAL (Physical Activity Level). The Harris-Benedict formula is used to calculate the basal metabolic rate (basal metabolic rate ). The calculation includes weight, age, gender and height. Two examples of this would be:

basal metabolic rate man (Kilocalories a day)

66.47 + (13.7 * Body weight in kg) + (5 * Height in cm) – (6.8 * Age in years) = basal metabolism

e.g. 66.4 + (13.7 * 90 kg) + (5* 190 cm) - (6.8 * 50 Jahre) = 1876.4 kcal

basal metabolic rate women (Kilocalories a day)

655.1 + (9.6 * Body weight in kg) + (1.8 * Height in cm) – (4.7 * Age in years) = basal metabolism

e.g. 655.1 + (9.6 * 70 kg) + (1.8 * 172 cm) - (4.7 * 35 Jahre) = 1472.7 kcal

Determination of the body mass index

#### Determine power turnover

Because the amount of daily muscle work is very different. Depending on their physical activity, people are divided into five groups according to their physical activity.

basal metabolism * PAL-Faktor = power turnover

PAL factors at different activities:

 PAL activity samples 0.95 sleep 1.2 only sitting or lying old, frail people 1.4–1.5 almost exclusively sitting. little leisure activities desk work 1.6–1.7 mostly sitting, with additional standing / walking activities Motorists, students, laboratory workers 1.8–1.9 mostly standing / walking activities Salesmen, waiters, craftsmen, housewife 2.0–2.4 physically demanding job Miners, forest workers, high performance athletes

The Physical Activity Level; PAL as a multiplication factor for basal metabolism. ultimately defines the average daily power turnover.

basal metabolism kcal * PAL factor = power turnover kcal

e.g. businessman: 1876.4 kcal * 1.5 = 2814.16 kcal / 11782 kJ

e.g. clerk: 1472.7 kcal * 1.5 = 2209.05 kcal / 9249 kJ

The metabolic equivalent - comparability of the energy consumption of different activities

The metabolic equivalent of task (MET) is used to compare the energy consumption of various activities. It is the description of the metabolic rate of a human relative to the resting metabolism in relation to his body weight.

1 MET equals a calorie consumption of 4.2 kJ (1 kcal) per kilogram of body weight per hour. This corresponds approximately to the resting metabolism of the body. Moderate physical activity has about a power consumption of 3-6 METs. intensive efforts usually over 6 METs.

 METs activity 3 Playing golf 4 To go for a walk 5 Skate 6 Swim 7 Dance 8 To go biking 10 To jog 12 Playing squash 14 To run

For example. a person weighing 90kg would walk at 1 hour (which is equivalent to about 4 times resting. that is 4 MET) 4 (kcal) x 90 (kg) = 360 kcal.

e.g. businessman: 2814.16 kcal + 360 kcal = 3174.16 kcal

e.g. clerk : 2209.05 kcal + 280 kcal = 2489.05 kcal

##### FOOTNOTE

The unit "calorie" is a since January 1. 1978 no longer permissible unit of energy. especially the heat energy. It was replaced by the unit "Joule". A joule is physically defined as the amount of heat that heats up about 0.239 Kelvin at normal atmospheric pressure (1013 hPa). 1 gram of water. A calorie was physically defined as the amount of heat needed at normal atmospheric pressure (1013 hPa) to heat 1 gram of water from 14.5 ° C to 15.5 ° C. Colloquially is almost always spoken of "calories". even if actually "kilocalories" (kcal) are meant. The conversion formula: 1 kcal = 4.187 kJ.

### GLOSSAR

BMI
Body-Mass-Index
kcal
kilocalories: 1 kcal = 1000 calories == 4200 Joule
kilo
in the decimal system 10³ = 1000
kJ
Kilojoule: 1 kJ = 1000 Joule == 239 kcal
MET
Metabolic equivalent for the calculation of energy turnover
PAL
Physical Activity Level
celiac Disease
gluten intolerance

### Bibliography

"Referenzwerte für die Nährstoffzufuhr"
Gemeinsames Werk der deutschen, österreichischen und schweizerischen Gesellschaften für Ernährung
Umschau Verlag, 2000, ISBN 3829571143
"Der Einfluss von resistenter Stärke auf die Fettsäureoxidation bei gesunden Erwachsenen"
Inauguraldissertation an der Medizinischen Fakultät der Universität Rostock Aug. 2011: rosdok.uni-rostock.de/file/rosdok_derivate_0000004892/Dissertation_Unger_2012.pdf
Verbraucherzentrale Niedersachsen "Formula-Diäten Vergleich"
Tabelle Formula-Diäten Jan. 2016: www.verbraucherzentrale-niedersachsen.demediabig/1160048A.pdf
Formula-Diät Hintergrund Jan. 2016: www.verbraucherzentrale-niedersachsen.de/mediabig/1160049A.pdf
Diabetes Austria glykämischer Index
www.diabetes-austria.com/dyn/userfiles/pdf/glykaemischer_index.pdf

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Christian Effenberger
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